Glossary of Russian Garb-Related Terms

Compiled by Liudmila Vladimirova doch’

and Mistress Soraya Evodia, O. L.


Armiak (pl., armiaki)- a loose cloth coat.

Bast – inner lining of tree bark.

Chelka (pl., chelki) – same as chelo.

Chelo (pl., chela) -- a pereviazka with the front part was decorated with embroidery or pearls. .

Chelo kichnoe (pl., chela kichyie) -- a poviazka that looked like a front part of a kokoshnik or kika worn by married women, and commonly misnamed "kokoshnik" in modern times.

Chereviki  (s., cherevik) - leather shoes covering the foot to above the ankle, made from several pieces of leather, with sewn-on soft soles.

Ferezeia (pl., ferezei) - a long, loose garment with long sleeves that had arm openings at the top, but without a collar. Closes with loops and buttons in front. .

Feriaz (men’s version, pl. feriazi) -- a kaftan-type garment that was ankle length, without a waistline, and with long sleeves, narrowing to the wrist.

Feriaz (woman’s version, pl. feriazi) – similar to shushun, with false sleeves, but built out of either separate front and back pieces with gores, or two front and one back pieces with gores.

Gorlatnaya shapka (pl., gorlatnyie shapki) – a tall, cylindrical, and widening towards the top shapka made of precious animal fur, with the very top made of fabric. Worn by men and maidens, as well as by members of a wedding party (including the bride) the day after the wedding.

Grivny (s., grivna) - torques.

Kaftan (pl., kaftany) - a lined, buttoned coat, at least knee-length, where the right front opening covered the left front opening.

Kalita (pl., kality)- a leather pouch.

Kaptorga (pl., kaptorgi)- a belt box of precious metal.

Kika (pl., kiki) -- a soft cap surrounded by a hard "podzor" - a strip of varied width and shape, often wider on top.

Kisheni (s., kishenia or kishen’) - detachable pockets.

Kokoshnik (pl., kokoshniki) – a married woman's headdress covering her hair, often made of silk or velvet, and covered with gold embroidery and pearls.

Kolpak (pl., kolpaki)- a pointed hat.

Kolty (s., kolt) - hollow metal ornaments decorated with enamel, engraving, granulation, or blackening, and secured to the headdress at the temples.

Kopytsa (s., kopytse)-- woolen socks.

Kortel (pl., korteli) – a fur-lined letnik.

Koruna (late-period use; pl., koruny) a venets, a crown, surrounding a round hat topped with a precious gem or a cross and ornately decorated.

Koruna (early use; pl. koruny)– a more complicated, highly ornamental venchik.

Korzno (pl., korzna) -- very long cloak worn only by the Dukes, fastened at the right shoulder so that the left arm was hidden.

Kozhuh (pl., kozhuhi) -- coat made of sheepskin or finer animal skins, with the fur on the inside. .

Kushak (pl., kushak)- a wide fabric belt or girdle.

Lapti (s., lapot’)- footwear woven from bark or bast.

Lychaki (s., lychak) – bast lapti.

Letnik (pl., letniki) - a woman's light outer garment with long, wide sleeves.

Malahay (pl., malahai) – see treuh.

Monisto (pl., monista) - a necklace of various beads or pearls, and metal plaques.

Moshna (pl., moshny)- a leather pouch.

Murmolka  (pl., murmolki) – a tall cap shaped like a cut cone with fur borders fastened to the crown in two places with loops and buttons.

Muzhik (pl., muzhiki) – a common man, peasant.

Nakapki (s., nakapka)– sleeves of a letnik.

Odnoriadka (pl., odnoriadki) – a long unlined coat without a collar with very long sleeves that had slits for arms at the top.

Okhaben (pl., okhabni) – a men's garment similar to odnoriadka but with a folding, rectangular collar.

Onuchi (s., onuch) - leg wraps of linen or wool, secured on the lower leg by criss-crossed long leather strips or hemp cords.

Opashen (pl., opashni) – an unisex long outer garment with long sleeves worn in summer, usually just thrown over the shoulders.

Ozherelie (pl., ozherel’ia)- a separate collar made of rich imported fabrics or fur and embroidered in silk, gold, and pearls.

Pereviazka (pl., pereviazki) -- a silk or cloth-of-gold ribbon tied around the maiden’s head.

Podnizi (s., podniz’)– pearl nets attached to the fronts of women’s headdresses.

Podoplieka (pl., podoplieki)- shoulder lining for shirt. In making the rubakha, this second layer of material is attached to the inside of the shirt's shoulders.

Podubrusnik (pl., podubrusniki) -- a soft light fabric cap covering a woman's two braids wrapped around the head, worn under any additional headdresses.

Porshni (s., porshen’) - the simplest kind of leather shoes, commonly made from a single rectangular piece of oiled leather, with the corners connected in pairs, and a leather thong threaded around the top edge.

Porty (no singular) -- men's pants with narrow legs and wide drawstring waist.

Poviazka (pl., poviazki) – same as pereviazka.

Povoy (pl., povoi) -- a towel-like veil closely wrapped around a woman's head and secured with special pins, later called 'ubrus'.

Povoynik (pl., povoyniki) – same as podubrusnik.

Pozatylnik (pl., pozatylniki) -- a rectangle of the same fabric as the povoynik made to cover the nape of the neck.

Privoloka (pl., privoloki) – a short and wide cloak, made of gold brocades with fancy buttons, and often adorned with gold embroidery of birds and beasts.

Prostovolosaya -- literally, plain-haired. A woman or a girl with her hair uncovered.  For a woman, this was considered very shameful. .

Riasy (no singular) -- strands of pearls attached to headdresses, either strung in single file or woven/netted, and sometimes adorned with metal decorations and gemstones.

Rubakha (pl., rubakhi)– see srachitsa.

Rukavki (s., rukavka)- narrow muffs.

Sapogi (s., sapog)- leather boots ending below the knee; with soft multi-layered leather soles, and slightly pointed or round toes.

Sarafan (pl., sarafany) - an A-line garment worn over a shirt and under other garments, sleeveless or with long, false sleeves. Post-period: country woman's jumper with shoulder straps.

Sayan (pl., sayany) – a sarafan-type garment made a length of fabric folded in half, with gores, sleeveless with very wide armholes.

Serdolik - pink mineral (possibly, rose quartz).

Shapka (pl., shapki)- cap.

Shirinka (pl., shirinki)- a decorative handkerchief embroidered in silk or gold (sometimes pearls) and trimmed with fringe and tassels.

Shliapa (pl., shliapy) - hat.

Shuba (pl., shuby) - fur-lined and fur-trimmed overcoat.

Shubka (pl. shubki) -- floor-length garment widened with gores, with straight neck opening, where a small slit was buttoned using loop closure. The sleeves were very long, with arm slits at the top, and worn either thrown back or tied one over the other.

Soroka (pl., soroki) – a multi-part women’s headdress incorporating a plain kika-like hat in various shapes covered with a fancy shell, soroka proper.

Srachitsa (pl., srachitsy) – shirt, commonly decorated with embroidery at all openings.

Stolbunets (pl., stolbuntsy) – a women’s tall, cylindrical fur shapka narrowing towards the top.

Sushun (pl., shushuny) – similar to sayan, with a square neck hole and gore-like widening strips of fabric inserted at the side seams; had long, narrow false sleeves at the back of the armholes. .

Svita (pl., svity)-- long, form-fitting kaftan with a slit opening to about the waist level. Woman's was longer and with wider sleeves.

Tafia (pl., taf’i)- skullcap.

Temple rings - metal ring-based decoration, worn braided in women's hair, attached to headdresses, or used as earrings.

Terlik (pl., terliki) a type of a kaftan, more narrow than other kaftany, fitted at the waist; the loop-and-button closures run to the waist from collarless triangular neckline, with lower part of the front opening left unbuttoned.

Torlop (pl., torlopy) – fur-lined letnik.

Treuh (pl., treuhi) -- a round flat-topped cap with three flaps similar to modern Russian fur hats.

Ubrus (pl., ubrusy) - a towel-like veil closely wrapped around a woman's head and secured with special pins.

Venchik (pl., venchiki; later "venets") - a narrow metal diadem or a narrow strip of bright, decorative fabric tied at the back.

Venets (pl., ventsy) – a late period maiden’s headdress made on a foundation of birchbark or leather with ornamental cut-outs at the top, in the shape of spikes, embattlements, or leaves.

Venok  (pl., venki) – a pereviazka with the ornamental decoration going all around the head.

Volosnik (pl., volosniki) -- a mesh cap with an embroidered fabric border. It was worn over a povoynik, or either over or under an ubrus.

Voshvy (s., voshva) – pieces of decorative and sometimes embroidered fabric appliqued to the sleeves or the chest of a garment.

Votola (pl., votoly)-- coarse linen or hemp cloth, or the common knee-length or ankle-length cloak made from it.

Zarukav'ia (s., zarukav’ie) - wide cuffs made of rich fabrics which were separate from clothing, worn by both men and women to secure and decorate their shirt sleeves.

Zepi (s., zep’)- sewn-on pockets.

Zipun (pl., zipuny)- a short, narrow jacket with narrow sleeves.